South China Sea VCG

Quitar los grilletes de la ASEAN

SINGAPUR – A medida que la Asociación de Naciones del Sudeste Asiático (ASEAN) se acerca a su 50 aniversario, mismo que se celebrará el próximo año, su fracaso en llegar a un consenso sobre las reivindicaciones territoriales chinas en el Mar de China Meridional ha suscitado preocupaciones en toda la región. Si bien el requisito que dicta que todas las decisiones deben ser tomadas por consenso permite que  Estados miembros dispares se unan; y, simultáneamente, protejan sus intereses nacionales, también limita la eficacia de la ASEAN en cuanto a enfrentar amenazas emergentes a la seguridad.

La regla de consenso explica por qué la ASEAN no presentó un frente unido después de los ataques terroristas del 11 de septiembre de 2001 en Estados Unidos y durante la posterior guerra contra el terrorismo liderada por E.E.U.U. Del mismo modo, la respuesta de la ASEAN a las provocaciones de Corea del Norte – como ser los ensayos nucleares en curso y el ataque del año 2010 que hundió a la corbeta surcoreana Cheonan, matando a 46 marineros – ha sido silenciada debido a la simpatía que tienen algunos miembros de la ASEAN por el régimen norcoreano.

Las disputas territoriales en el Mar Meridional de China son, hasta el momento, el indicador más fuerte sobre que el principio de consenso de la ASEAN limita la eficacia de la organización. La interrogante sobre cómo responder a la creciente asertividad china en la región ha dividido a los Estados miembros de ASEAN más profundamente que cualquier asunto anterior.

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