arab spring anniversary Chedly Ben Ibrahim/Corbis/Getty Images

La Primavera Árabe y el invierno occidental

BEIRUT – Hay muchos paralelos sorprendentes entre la “Primavera Árabe” iniciada en 2010 y el referendo británico por el Brexit, la elección de Donald Trump como presidente de los Estados Unidos y el resurgimiento de la extrema derecha en toda Europa. En todos estos casos, un viejo orden se derrumbó, y los partidos progresistas han sido demasiado débiles para contrarrestar la aparición de propuestas políticas autoritarias y xenófobas.

El descontento creciente con el statu quo que impulsó los levantamientos árabes de 2010 y 2011 tenía muchas causas, y la oposición mostró a la vez vertientes progresistas y conservadoras. Para la clase media, el motivo de malestar era la pérdida de su dignidad a manos de una élite no sujeta a rendición de cuentas; los jóvenes protestaban contra un futuro que se veía particularmente desesperanzador en comparación con las expectativas de la generación de sus padres; y los islamistas atizaban la oposición moral a la pérdida de valores éticos en la sociedad.

Todos estos temas aparecen una y otra vez en los debates que se desarrollan en todo Occidente, con su creciente población de blancos desafectos, trabajadores desplazados y jóvenes frustrados. Con el tiempo, conforme el liberalismo económico desplazó antiguos principios de igualdad y solidaridad social, aparecieron amplias desigualdades que corrompieron la política en muchos países occidentales.

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