Réchauffement climatique : n'oublions pas l'Afrique

MAPUTO, MOZAMBIQUE – Nous partageons toutes trois l'inquiétude croissante des Africains de voir leur continent marginalisé dans les débats cruciaux qui auront lieu lors du COP15 - la conférence sur le réchauffement climatique qui se tiendra à Copenhague ce mois-ci. Si l'on s'intéresse aux conséquences de la lutte contre le réchauffement climatique sur les pays industrialisés, on laisse largement de coté - au moins en terme de mesures concrètes - la situation des pays pauvres qui constitue pourtant une urgence en raison de possibles catastrophes.

Le reste du monde devrait se rappeler que si l'Afrique est le continent qui contribue le moins au réchauffement climatique, c'est celui qui doit en supporter les conséquences les plus graves. On peut déjà en observer des signes inquiétants, le climat change : les pluies diminuent dans certaines régions et de grandes étendues du continent sont frappées par des sécheresses inhabituelles.

La situation géographique de l'Afrique, ses méthodes en matière d'agriculture, le problème de l'eau et l'exploitation de ses ressources par des compagnies privées et des entreprises étrangères ont accru sa vulnérabilité. La déforestation, que ce soit pour le commerce du bois ou le chauffage, accélère l'érosion et diminue la fertilité des sols. Les différentes communautés sont en concurrence pour des ressources de plus en plus rares, ce qui alimente des conflits. Les violences qui ont éclaté au Darfour, en Somalie et en Côte d'Ivoire tiennent en partie à des revendications liées aux terres cultivables ou aux pâturages.

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