Afrika, změna klimatu a summit G8

Britský ministerský předseda Tony Blair prohlásil, že dvěma ústředními tématy červencového summitu G8 budou africká chudoba a globální změna klimatu. Může se zdát, že jde o dvě odlišné záležitosti. Ve skutečnosti jsou však spjaty. Cesta do vesnice v severoetiopském regionu Tigray, již jsem podnikl, ukazuje proč.

Jednoho rána jsem byl zaveden k vyschlému korytu řeky na kraji vesnice. Zemědělci v řečišti kopali jámu, aby se dostali k hladině podzemní vody přibližně dva metry pod úrovní terénu. Vysvětlili mi, že až donedávna šlo o trvalý tok – řeku, která teče po celý rok –, ale teď přestává během suchého období proudit. V řečišti se objeví voda teprve s příchodem každoročních letních dešťů. Do té doby vyprahlé obce kopou vodu, pokud ji dokáží najít a pokud mají prostředky na to, aby ji odčerpávali.

V severní Etiopii, tak jako ve většině Afriky, se v posledních letech výrazně proměnil koloběh srážek. Etiopský venkovský život dlouho závisel na dvou úrodách, první během krátkého deště v březnu a v dubnu a druhé a hlavní během dlouhého deště v letních měsících. V posledních letech krátké deště úplně ustaly a dlouhé deště kolísají. Hlad je všudypřítomný. Snad polovina dětí trpí těžkou podvýživou.

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