Warum man für Fairness mehr bezahlen sollte

Marks & Spencer, eine Supermarkt- und Bekleidungskette mit 400 Filialen in ganz Großbritannien, gab vor kurzem bekannt, dass sie ihre gesamte Kaffee- und Teepalette, insgesamt 38 Produktlinien, auf Fairtrade, ein Marketingsymbol für „ethische Produktion“, umstellen wolle. Die Kette verkauft in ihren 200 Café-Revive-Kaffeestuben bereits ausschließlich Tee und Kaffee mit Fairtraide-Siegel. Sie erhöht ebenfalls ihre Einkaufsmenge an Hemden und anderen Waren aus Fairtrade-Baumwolle. Die Bekanntgabe erfolgte während des „Fairtrade Fortnight“, einer zweiwöchigen Kampagne für Fairtrade-Produkte, in der unter anderem Bauern aus Entwicklungsländern den Briten auf Vorträgen an verschiedenen Orten erzählten, wie Fairtrade ihren Gemeinden geholfen hat.

Die Bewegung hin zu einem ethischeren Verbrauch hat auch in den Vereinigten Staaten an Bedeutung gewonnen, wo sich die Verbraucher immer mehr biologisch angebauten, lokal hergestellten Lebensmitteln sowie Eiern aus Freilandhaltung zuwenden. In Großbritannien ergab eine Umfrage, dass die Hälfte der Befragten das Fairtrade-Symbol erkannte und wusste, dass es sich auf Produkte bezieht, die den Bauern in der Dritten Welt bessere geschäftliche Konditionen bieten. Es gibt keine vergleichbare US-Studie, doch ähnliche Daten und Diskussionen mit meinen eigenen Studenten weisen darauf hin, dass die Zahl wesentlich geringer wäre.

Händler, die das Fairtrade-Siegel beantragen, müssen den Herstellern einen Preis zahlen, der die Kosten einer nachhaltigen Produktion deckt und einen Mindestlohn sichert. Zum Beispiel beträgt der Mindestpreis für Kaffee $ 1,26 pro Pfund, egal wie tief der Marktpreis fällt. Wenn der Marktpreis über diesen Wert steigt, erhöht sich der Fairhandelspreis, so dass er pro Pfund um fünf Cent höher bleibt.

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