Por qué los Chinos de Ultramar Dominan el Sector Exportador Chino

Desde el inicio de la década de 1990, China ha sido el país que ha recibido más inversión extranjera directa (IED), con excepción de Estados Unidos. De este vasto influjo de capital, los chinos de ultramar (de Hong Kong, Taiwan, Macao y el Asia sudoriental) han aportado la mayor parte. Las inversiones de Hong Kong y Macao representaron el 70% de la IED de China a inicio de los noventa; desde entonces, su participación ha bajado, pero todavía se mantiene en un 50% de la IED total.

El hecho de que China reciba tanto capital de los expatriados ha generado envidia a nivel mundial. Los funcionarios hindúes se lamentan porque sus compatriotas que viven en ultramar no cuentan con la riqueza ni se inclinan a favor de invertir en casa. Los economistas y los observadores celebran la disponibilidad de canales de capital, know-how y marketing que permitió que China se convirtiera --en un corto periodo-- en la base manufacturera y el generador de exportaciones de Asia.

La prodigiosa loa de este flujo de IED de expatriados, sin embargo, no permite ver sus fallas. Sí, las empresas que cuentan con inversión de expatriados producen muchas de las exportaciones chinas, pero con frecuencia lo hacen arrebatando el control de los negocios exportadores de las manos de los chinos nativos. Son dos los cálculos que lo demuestran. Uno es el cociente exportaciones / PIB, que pasó de 15% en 1990 a 20% en 1999, un crecimiento de 5%. El otro es la participación que las exportaciones de compañías extranjeras tienen en las exportaciones totales chinas, la cual aumentó de 15% a casi 40% durante el mismo periodo. Así, quizá las firmas extranjeras generen exportaciones para China, pero también dejan una gran rebanada del pie de las exportaciones fuera del alcance de los empresarios nativos chinos.

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.

required

Log in

http://prosyn.org/9Yi3TeD/es;
  1. Chris J Ratcliffe/Getty Images

    The Brexit Surrender

    European Union leaders meeting in Brussels have given the go-ahead to talks with Britain on post-Brexit trade relations. But, as European Council President Donald Tusk has said, the most difficult challenge – forging a workable deal that secures broad political support on both sides – still lies ahead.

  2. The Great US Tax Debate

    ROBERT J. BARRO vs. JASON FURMAN & LAWRENCE H. SUMMERS on the impact of the GOP tax  overhaul.


    • Congressional Republicans are finalizing a tax-reform package that will reshape the business environment by lowering the corporate-tax rate and overhauling deductions. 

    • But will the plan's far-reaching changes provide the boost to investment and growth that its backers promise?


    ROBERT J. BARRO | How US Corporate Tax Reform Will Boost Growth

    JASON FURMAN & LAWRENCE H. SUMMERS | Robert Barro's Tax Reform Advocacy: A Response

  3. Murdoch's Last Stand?

    Rupert Murdoch’s sale of 21st Century Fox’s entertainment assets to Disney for $66 billion may mark the end of the media mogul’s career, which will long be remembered for its corrosive effect on democratic discourse on both sides of the Atlantic. 

    From enabling the rise of Donald Trump to hacking the telephone of a murdered British schoolgirl, Murdoch’s media empire has staked its success on stoking populist rage.

  4. Bank of England Leon Neal/Getty Images

    The Dangerous Delusion of Price Stability

    Since the hyperinflation of the 1970s, which central banks were right to combat by whatever means necessary, maintaining positive but low inflation has become a monetary-policy obsession. But, because the world economy has changed dramatically since then, central bankers have started to miss the monetary-policy forest for the trees.

  5. Harvard’s Jeffrey Frankel Measures the GOP’s Tax Plan

    Jeffrey Frankel, a professor at Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government and a former member of President Bill Clinton’s Council of Economic Advisers, outlines the five criteria he uses to judge the efficacy of tax reform efforts. And in his view, the US Republicans’ most recent offering fails miserably.

  6. A box containing viles of human embryonic Stem Cell cultures Sandy Huffaker/Getty Images

    The Holy Grail of Genetic Engineering

    CRISPR-Cas – a gene-editing technique that is far more precise and efficient than any that has come before it – is poised to change the world. But ensuring that those changes are positive – helping to fight tumors and mosquito-borne illnesses, for example – will require scientists to apply the utmost caution.

  7. The Year Ahead 2018

    The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

    Order now