Dean Rohrer

L’importanza della migrazione

OXFORD – In quasi tutti i paesi ricchi il sentimento anti-immigrati è al culmine. Tale fervore è però un male a cui bisogna opporsi se queste società vogliono continuare a prosperare e se i paesi in via di sviluppo vogliono combattere la povertà e sostenere la crescita economica.

Un alto tasso di migrazione globale è auspicabile per quattro ragioni: è fonte di innovazione e dinamismo; risponde alle carenze di manodopera; soddisfa le sfide derivanti dal rapido incremento della popolazione anziana; fornisce una via di fuga dalla povertà e dalla persecuzione. Limitare la migrazione rallenterebbe invece la crescita economica e indebolirebbe la competitività a lungo termine delle società, oltre a creare un mondo meno prospero, più iniquo e frammentato.

Ovviamente, in caso di elevati tassi di migrazione sussistono costi locali nel breve periodo a cui bisogna far fronte se le società intendono godere di benefici più ampi nel lungo periodo. Tutto sommato, malgrado l’opposizione interna ai paesi riceventi, il numero di migranti internazionali è raddoppiato negli ultimi 25 anni, e raddoppierà ulteriormente entro il 2030. I rapidi cambiamenti economici e politici – e in modo crescente i cambiamenti ambientali – smuovono le persone, incoraggiandole a cercare nuove opportunità e sicurezza altrove.

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