Dean Rohrer

L'immigration, un bienfait !

OXFORD – L'hostilité aux immigrés atteint un niveau inquiétant dans presque tous les pays riches. C'est une maladie à laquelle ces pays doivent résister s'ils veulent continuer à prospérer et cela aidera les pays en développement à combattre la pauvreté et à parvenir à une croissance durable.

Une immigration plus importante est souhaitable au niveau mondial pour quatre raisons : elle est source d'innovation et de dynamisme, c'est une solution au manque de main d'ouvre, elle répond au problème du vieillissement de la population dans les pays développés et elle permet aux immigrés d'échapper à la pauvreté et aux persécutions. Par contre sa limitation freine la croissance économique et mine la compétitivité à long terme des pays qui choisissent cette voie ; creusant les inégalités et accentuant les clivages sur la planète, elle constitue un obstacle à la prospérité.

Certes, suivant les lieux l'augmentation de l'immigration peut entraîner des problèmes à court terme qu'il faut résoudre de manière à en tirer les bénéfices à long terme - des bénéfices qui surpassent largement ces inconvénients momentanés. Malgré l'opposition des pays de destination des migrants, leur nombre a doublé depuis 25 ans et va encore doubler jusqu'à 2030. Le changement économique et politique rapide - et de plus en plus le changement environnemental - entraîne des déplacements de population et incite beaucoup de personnes à rechercher la sécurité et à tenter leur chance ailleurs.

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