À qui appartient la Géorgie ?

Ces dernières semaines, les responsables de divers mouvements d’opposition géorgiens, notamment d’Antisoros et de Justice, ont été emprisonnés à la suite d’accusations injustifiées d’avoir tramé un coup d’État pour le compte de la Russie. Cette vague de répression politique trahit tout bonnement les efforts désespérés du président Mikhail Saakachvili de se cramponner au pouvoir. Pour faire face à la propagation du dissentiment populaire et au durcissement de l’opposition, les autorités ont tenté de contrôler les organisations non gouvernementales (ONG) et de renforcer les forces de sécurité. Mais cela ne fera qu’engendrer des protestations massives et compromettra, au bout du compte, la transition démocratique de la Géorgie que Saakachvili prétend défendre.

Le président géorgien voit une « influence moscovite » dans toute contestation de son autorité, ce qui peut s’expliquer par les relations étroites que son gouvernement entretient avec les États-Unis. Notons pourtant que ceux qui ont été pris dans la dernière rafle contre l’opposition avaient déjà été emprisonnés en 2003, au moment de la « Révolution des roses », par le gouvernement d’Edouard Chevardnadze que Saakachvili a aidé à renverser dans un élan soi-disant démocratique.

Les récents événements montrent clairement qu’une mentalité tsariste, s’inspirant du modèle byzantin de pouvoir politique — l’empereur et sa cour — et s’appuyant essentiellement sur une autorité présidentielle immodérée, a survécu à la révolution. Avant que les forces de sécurité ne prennent pour cible le bloc d’opposition, les partisans de réformes éducatives faisaient déjà l’objet de poursuites et la quasi-totalité de la presse était sous l’influence du gouvernement.

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