¿Campeón de quién, a fin de cuentas?

Los nexos entre los Estados y las empresas han acaparado los grandes titulares. El caso más reciente sucedió en Rusia en donde el Presidente Vladimir Putin parece estar obsesionado con crear “campeones nacionales” en los sectores energético y aeroespacial. Tales esfuerzos parecen ser sólo parte de un oleada de proteccionismo en el debate político europeo sobre los negocios, especialmente en lo que se refiere a las adquisiciones transfronterizas.

Por todo Europa, los gobiernos se posicionan para que se les vea como defensores de los actores “nacionales” frente a los competidores “extranjeros”. El “patriotismo económico”, lema acuñado por el Primer Ministro francés Dominique de Villepin tras el rumor del intento de PepsiCo de absorber Danone en julio de 2005, tal sea el que mejor describe el imperativo político. Aunque los discursos de de Villepin son más extravagantes que los de la mayoría de los líderes políticos, el sentimiento esencial se extiende más allá de Francia.

El mismo impulso parece estar detrás de la política de Italia sobre las Autostrade, la de España sobre Endesa, la de Polonia sobre su sector bancario, la del ex Primer Ministro sueco sobre Volvo, el malestar alemán acerca de los fondos tipo "langosta" en la Deutsche Börse o la defensa cada vez más ruidosa del Reino Unido de la independencia de la Bolsa de Valores de Londres de Estados Unidos.

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