california bridge collapse Quartzsite Fire And Rescue/ZumaPress

Un plan Marshall pour l'Amérique

NEW YORK – Suite à l'effondrement d'un pont autoroutier en Californie le mois dernier, l'impact observé sur toute la région sud-est des États-Unis vient souligner une fois de plus la gravité des défaillances infrastructurelles du pays. En effet, dans une certaine mesure, la plus importante économie au monde s'écroule aujourd’hui peu à peu.

L'aversion idéologique vis-à-vis de l'investissement du secteur public, de même que la prédominance d'un mode de pensée à court terme de la part de ceux qui rédigent les budgets, ont abaissé les dépenses jusqu'à des niveaux bien insuffisants en matières d'autoroutes, d'aéroports, de chemins de fer, de réseaux de télécommunications et de production d'électricité. Seulement voilà, cette problématique ne peut plus être ignorée. Si les États-Unis n'agissent pas rapidement afin de conférer de solides fondations à leur reprise économique fragile, le pays pourrait à nouveau glisser lentement vers la stagnation.

La logique la plus évidente voudrait en principe qu'une économie développée procède judicieusement et continuellement à des investissements dans les biens publics. Or, au vu de la situation infrastructurelle des États-Unis, il semble que tous les acteurs décisionnels ne partagent pas cette conception. Dans le rapport 2013 de l'American Society of Civil Engineers, le pays n'obtient qu'une piètre note globale de D+ pour ses infrastructures. Le rapport énumère de nombreuses insuffisances spécifiques à chaque état, relevant par exemple la présence de « 88 barrages à risque élevé et 1 298 ponts structurellement défaillants » dans le Michigan, ou encore un besoin de financement à hauteur de « 44,5 milliards aux fins de la mise à niveau des systèmes d'eau potable » de Californie.

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