Unir as Frotas da Europa

PARIS – Das 23 forças navais da Europa, apenas a França possui um porta-aviões completamente operacional, o navio-almirante de 40.000 toneladas Charles de Gaulle. Embora o Reino Unido esteja actualmente a construir dois porta-aviões, a Royal Navy está a anos de distância da capacidade de entregar poder aéreo instantâneo a partir do mar. Não obstante, a Europa está razoavelmente equipada para se defender contra ameaças externas. Está menos capaz, no entanto, de enfrentar cortes orçamentais iminentes. 

A estratégia da segurança marítima da Europa é desde há muito fundada em dois princípios básicos. Em primeiro lugar, as rotas comerciais marítimas, responsáveis por quase 85% do total de exportações e importações da União Europeia, devem ser mantidas livres e seguras. E, em segundo lugar, os países Europeus devem manter a capacidade de responder a qualquer crise importante de segurança.

Os acontecimentos internacionais destacam a relevância destas prioridades. Por exemplo, as tensões crescentes com o Irão poderão levar a Europa a enviar as suas marinhas de guerra num bloqueio à volta do Golfo Pérsico, de modo a garantir o trânsito do petróleo. Similarmente, a pirataria no Golfo da Guiné e no Oceano Índico, especialmente ao longo da costa da Somália, ameaça as actividades marítimas da Europa, incluindo o seu extensivo comércio por via marítima.

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