Unifions les marines européennes

PARIS – Des 23 forces navales européennes, seule la France possède un porte-avions parfaitement opérationnel, le navire-amiral Charles de Gaulle, un bâtiment de 40 000 tonneaux. Le Royaume-Uni en a deux en construction, mais la Royal Navy est à des années d'avoir la capacité de pouvoir disposer dans l'instant d'une force aérienne en mer. Néanmoins l'Europe est correctement équipée pour se défendre contre des menaces extérieures. Mais elle n'a pas la même capacité pour résister aux coupes budgétaires qui s'annoncent.

Durant longtemps la stratégie de sécurité maritime européenne reposait sur deux principes : premièrement garantir la sécurité des voies commerciales maritimes qui comptent pour près de 85% du total des exportations et des importations de l'Union européenne ; et deuxièmement maintenir la capacité des pays européens à faire face à toute crise sécuritaire majeure.

La situation internationale illustre le bien-fondé de ces priorités. Ainsi la tension croissante avec l'Iran pourrait contraindre l'Europe à déployer ses bâtiments pour former un blocus autour du golfe persique afin de garantir le passage des pétroliers. De la même manière, la piraterie dans le golfe de Guinée et dans l'océan Indien, notamment le long des côtes de Somalie, menace l'activité maritime de l'Europe, en particulier son commerce maritime très intense.

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