Le test de crédibilité du Conseil de sécurité

CANBERRA – La composition du Conseil de sécurité de l’Organisation des Nations Unies sera modifiée en 2015, mais elle ne sera pas si différente de ses versions précédentes. Les victorieux de la deuxième guerre mondiale – les Etats Unis, le Royaume Uni, la France, la Russie, et la Chine – préserveront les premières loges associées au pouvoir. Cinq membres non permanents – la Nouvelle Zélande, l’Espagne, l’Angola, la Malaisie et le Venezuela – intègreront le Conseil pour un mandat de deux ans, en remplacement respectivement de l’Australie, du Luxembourg, du Rwanda, de la Corée du Sud, et de l’Argentine. Les strapontins restant seront occupés pour un an de plus par le Tchad, le Chili, la Jordanie, la Lituanie, et le Nigeria.

A l’exception du Nigéria, aucun des principaux acteurs du vingt-et-unième siècle – le Brésil, l’Allemagne, l’Inde, le Japon ou l’Afrique du Sud – n’y occuperont un siège. Tous les efforts produits pour réformer la structure du Conseil de sécurité – y compris mettre un terme à l’impossibilité pour un membre non permanent d’être réélu pour un deuxième mandat consécutif, ce qui permettrait pourtant un engagement pérenne, ou même une adhésion permanente officielle – ont abouti à une impasse.

Reconstruire le Conseil de sécurité pour faire en sorte que toutes les puissances influentes aient toujours un siège à la table n’est pas à l’ordre du jour de la réforme, mais cette proposition est pourtant l’une des plus importantes. La légitimité institutionnelle du Conseil en tant que premier organe décisionnaire du monde en matière de paix et de sécurité n’est pas acquise. Si le Conseil préserve son profil actuel, il ne faudra pas s’étonner que sa crédibilité et son autorité soient avant peu, peut-être même moins d’une quinzaine d’années, menacées.

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