Dos funerales y nuestra libertad

MOSCU – Mi bisabuelo, Nikita Khrushchev, me ha venido a la mente recientemente. Supongo que fue el 50 aniversario del llamado "debate de cocina" que sostuvo con Richard Nixon lo que primero desató mis recuerdos. Pero el funeral la semana pasada en Budapest del general Béla Király, que comandó a los luchadores de la libertad de la Revolución Húngara en 1956, y el funeral esta semana en Varsovia del filósofo Leszek Kolakowski, cuya rotura con el estalinismo ese mismo año inspiró a muchos intelectuales (en Polonia y en otras partes) a abandonar el comunismo, me hicieron considerar el legado de mi bisabuelo.

El año 1956 fue el mejor y el peor de los tiempos para Khrushchev. Su "discurso secreto" ese año dejó al descubierto la monumentalidad de los crímenes de Stalin. En poco tiempo, el Gulag prácticamente se vació y se inició un deshielo político que alimentó murmullos de libertad imposibles de contener. En Polonia y Hungría, en particular, estalló una marea subterránea en demanda de un cambio.

Hungría, por supuesto, tuvo su revolución breve y gloriosa. Esa primera guerra entre los estados socialistas destrozó el mito de los lazos "fraternos" inviolables entre la Unión Soviética y las naciones cautivas de Europa del este. Pero Khrushchev nunca imaginó la desintegración del imperio soviético como parte de su política de deshielo. De manera que el Ejército Rojo invadió Hungría -en una escala mayor que la invasión del Día D de Europa por parte de los aliados en 1944.

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