Deux funérailles et notre liberté

MOSCOU – Il m’arrive souvent ces derniers temps de repenser à mon arrière grand-père, Nikita Khrouchtchev. Je suppose que la célébration du cinquantième anniversaire de ce que l’on a appelé le “kitchen debate”, son impromptu avec Richard Nixon, y fut pour quelque chose. Mais la récente disparition de deux hommes réveille en moi le besoin de me pencher sur l’héritage de mon aïeul : celle, la semaine dernière, du Général Béla Király, commandant des combattants de la liberté de la révolution hongroise en 1956 et celle du philosophe Leszek Kolakowski, cette semaine à Varsovie, dont la rupture avec le stalinisme encourageât  de nombreux intellectuels (en Pologne et ailleurs) à rompre avec le communisme.

1956 fut, pour Khrouchtchev, la pire des années mais aussi la meilleure. Son discours sur « le culte de la personnalité » cette année-là mit en évidence la monstruosité des crimes staliniens. Ce fut presque la fin des goulags. Le dégel politique qui s’en suivit fit naître un vent léger de liberté qui n’a pu être étouffé, entrainant, surtout en Pologne et en Hongrie, une vague sourde et têtue vers le changement.

La Hongrie a bien sur connu sa révolution, aussi courte que glorieuse. Cette première guerre entre états socialistes a fait exploser le mythe des liens « fraternels » inviolables entre l’Union Soviétique et ses satellites d’Europe de l’Est. Mais Khrouchtchev n’avait jamais envisagé que ce dégel puisse provoquer l’effondrement de l’empire soviétique. L’Armée Rouge a donc envahi la Hongrie avec des moyens autrement plus importants que ceux mis en œuvre par les Alliés lors du débarquement en Europe en 1944.

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