Trump Mandel Ngan/Getty Images

O que pode um Presidente fazer?

SEOUL – Ao tomar posse, Donald Trump prometeu uma série de mudanças radicais na política económica dos Estados Unidos. Descobriu rapidamente, como aconteceu a anteriores presidentes dos EUA, que o sistema político da América foi concebido para evitar mudanças rápidas e em grande escala, ao interpor enormes obstáculos institucionais, que vão do Congresso e dos funcionários públicos de carreira, aos governos estaduais e aos tribunais.

Comecemos pela reforma do imposto sobre o rendimento das pessoas singulares. Esta deveria ser simples, já que o presidente e os líderes Republicanos do Congresso estão em sintonia. O objectivo de Trump de afastar a mão do governo dos bolsos dos americanos, diminuindo a taxa marginal máxima de imposto sobre os rendimentos correntes de 39,5% para 33%, é completamente consistente com a ideologia Republicana vigente, segundo a qual as elevadas taxas de imposto penalizam o sucesso e asfixiam a inovação.

Mas, para serem politicamente viáveis, as reduções fiscais significativas para os mais abastados teriam de ser acompanhadas de reduções fiscais pelo menos simbólicas para a classe média. E as reduções fiscais generalizadas afectariam o orçamento e alarmariam os falcões do défice no Congresso, dos quais ainda resistem alguns.

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