Nueva mirada a la plaza de Tienanmen

NUEVA YORK amp#45;amp#45; Cuando China destaca cada vez más en la economía mundial, vale la pena recordar que en junio hará veinte años que la República Popular de China estuvo a punto de venirse abajo. El movimiento de protesta que se congregó en la plaza de Tienanmen en la primavera de 1989 planteó una amenaza existencial al Estado del Partido Comunista, proclamado por Mao Zedong en ese mismo lugar cuarenta años antes.

La amenaza tenía dos procedencias: de dentro de las altas esferas de la dirección del Partido, en la que las diferencias ideológicas sobre la reforma escindieron al Politburó gobernante, y de las masas urbanas, que, con los estudiantes de Beijing en vanguardia, se rebelaron abierta y pacíficamente contra la autoridad estatal.

Asombrosamente, el Partido salió de la crisis unificado en torno a la concepción de Deng Xiaoping de una “economía socialista de mercado” y recuperó la legitimidad ante la población urbana mediante su plasmación. El Partido restableció la unidad con un programa de crecimiento impulsado por el mercado e integrado en la economía mundial, que se debía lograr sin la intercesión de la “Diosa de la Democracia” de los estudiantes, pero brindando beneficios materiales tangibles a los residentes de las zonas urbanas.

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