Climat et compétitivité

BERLIN – Au moment où la crise de la dette européenne s’efface, un autre désastre économique semble être imminent – le prix de l'énergie. Depuis les années 2000, le prix moyen de l'électricité que doit payer les industries européennes a plus ou moins doublé, et les entreprises européennes payent à présent deux fois plus cher pour le gaz que leurs concurrents américains. Est-ce que les politiques climatiques très ambitieuses de l'Europe – qui visent à augmenter le coût des « mauvaises » sources d'énergie – est en train de détruire la base industrielle du continent ?

À première vue, les chiffres semblent soutenir les pires prévisions. Comment un écart de prix aussi important pourrait-il ne pas avoir un impact sur la compétitivité ? Pourtant, si les prix élevés de l'énergie conduisent à une baisse des exportations, comment se fait-il que l'Allemagne, qui possède certaines des politiques climatiques les plus ambitieuses au monde, ait doublé ses exportations depuis 2000 ?

En fait, les chiffres montrent que, dans de nombreux cas, réduire davantage les émissions de dioxyde de carbone pourrait aider à rendre les industries plus compétitives. Explorer ce potentiel pourrait ouvrir des possibilités importantes, non seulement pour lutter contre le changement climatique, mais aussi en vue de favoriser la robustesse économique à long terme de l'Europe.

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