Paul Lachine

Le géant aux pieds d'argile

PARIS – La "guerre des devises" qui commence va probablement dominer les discussions du sommet du G20 à Séoul. Elle doit être évaluée au regard de la nouvelle répartition des pouvoirs sur l'échiquier mondial – une répartition qui a évoluée en seulement deux ans, du fait de la première crise de l'économie mondialisée.

Elle a laissé nombre de pays développés dans une situation économique si difficile qu'ils se débattent encore aujourd'hui pour se redresser. A l'opposé, après une courte phase de ralentissement, les pays émergeants sont parvenus à relancer le moteur de la croissance et progressent maintenant à toute allure, avec des taux de croissance impressionnants.

Tout cela a eu également des conséquences financières et monétaires. Même si aucune devise n'est encore en position de remplacer le dollar au sein des réserves mondiales, ce "privilège exorbitant", ainsi que De Gaulle l'avait formulé, fait maintenant l'objet d'attaques en douce. En mars 2010, la groupe "ASEAN + 3" (les pays de l'ASEAN auxquels s'ajoutent la Chine, le Japon et la Corée du Sud) a créé un fonds d'aide d'urgence de 120 milliards de dollars dans le cadre de "l'Inititative de Chiang Mai". Cette fois-ci, contrairement à ce qui s'était passé en 1997, les USA n'ont même pas tenté de torpiller cet embryon de "Fonds monétaire asiatique".

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