El espejo chino-estadounidense

HONG KONG – Noviembre fue un mes de importantes cambios de liderazgo en todo el mundo, incluyendo la confirmación de Xi Jinping como el más alto funcionario de China y la reelección del presidente Barack Obama de los EE.UU. Estos cambios pusieron en relieve las marcadas diferencias entre los sistemas políticos de los dos países. No obstante, ambos países comparten las mismas metas de desarrollo nacional: aumento de la prosperidad de sus ciudadanos, reducción de las desigualdades sociales, y abordaje de la sostenibilidad ambiental.

El hecho es que los cambios rápidos en los ámbitos sociales, tecnológicos y ambientales presentan un desafío para ambos modelos de gobernanza y desarrollo, tanto para el modelo chino como para el modelo occidental, mismos que requieren de importantes reformas. Además, los líderes de los dos países deben llevar a cabo estas reformas dentro de una permanencia en el cargo que tiene una duración limitada, con recursos limitados, y dentro de un contexto global de interdependencia y rivalidad en el ámbito del comercio exterior.

En los Estados Unidos, donde los mercados, el poder judicial y las regulaciones tienen un alto grado de desarrollo, la necesidad imperativa no es la reforma institucional, sino la reforma política – que aborde la posición fiscal débil, las desigualdades en los ingresos y la riqueza, el desempleo, la asistencia de salud y la infraestructura física en deterioro.

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