Le miroir sino-américain

HONG KONG – Le mois de novembre a été marqué par plusieurs changements majeurs de gouvernance politique autour du monde, parmi lesquels la confirmation de Xi Jinping en tant que dirigeant suprême de la Chine, ou encore la réélection du président américain Barack Obama. Ont été mises en lumière un certain nombre de différences frappantes entre les systèmes politiques de ces deux États. Pour autant, les deux nations partagent les mêmes objectifs quant au développement de leur pays : accroître la prospérité des citoyens, réduire les inégalités sociales, et faire face au défi de la viabilité de l’environnement.

Le fait est que la rapidité des évolutions sociales, technologiques et environnementales pose des problématiques à la fois aux modèles de gouvernance et de développement des Occidentaux et des Chinois, qui exigent des réformes significatives. De plus, il appartient aux dirigeants de ces deux États de mettre en œuvre des réformes dans le cadre d’un mandat limité, de ressources restreintes, et d’un contexte commercial mondial marqué par la rivalité et l’interdépendance.

Aux États-Unis, où les marchés, l’appareil judiciaire et la réglementation sont extrêmement développés, l’impératif ne réside pas dans la réforme institutionnelle, mais dans la réforme des politiques – qui doivent répondre à la fébrilité budgétaire, aux inégalités des revenus et des richesses, au chômage, aux défis en matière de santé ainsi qu’à la détérioration des infrastructures physiques.

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