Las dos caras de Berlusconi

El primero de los seis meses de Silvio Berlusconi como presidente de la UE ha sido agitado. Gran parte de Europa está viendo de cerca por primera vez al multimillonario primer ministro italiano, y a muchos no les gusta lo que ven. Pero, al evaluar la naturaleza de su régimen, Europa debe ver más allá de la lengua desatada de Berlusconi. Tal vez tampoco así les guste lo que representa y su forma de gobernar, pero se darán cuenta de que no es el "hombre fuerte" sin oposición que muchos europeos se imaginan.

La coalición de centro derecha de Berlusconi ganó las elecciones de 2001 alegando que era la única fuerza política capaz de lanzar (y cumplir) un ambicioso programa de reformas. Lamentablemente para Italia, resultó que Berlusconi tenía dos agendas de reformas. Una se centra en sus propios intereses jurídicos y económicos (llamémosle su programa de "reformas personales"), gran parte de la cual él ha implementado con agresividad. La otra, la agenda de "reformas generales" ha recibido muy poca de su energía y es poco probable que reciba más.

El parlamento italiano, donde la coalición de Berlusconi tiene una mayoría avasalladora, ha aprobado cuatro leyes diseñadas para evitar que el primer ministro sea juzgado y condenado. Una "reforma" legal consiste en abolir prácticamente el delito de contabilidad falsa; otra hace difícil, si no es que imposible, recabar evidencias en el extranjero sobre un delito. Una tercera ley nueva permite que los juicios se trasladen a tribunales de otras jurisdicciones si existe una "sospecha legítima" de que los jueces están "prejuiciados", acusación que Berlusconi reiteradamente hace en contra de los magistrados de Milán (él les llama los "magistrados rojos") que lo están investigando. Por último, una ley otorga inmunidad jurídica a los cinco funcionarios de Estado más importantes, incluyendo, obviamente, al primer ministro.

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