Les pièges des traités commerciaux

Le récent accord commercial conclu entre le Chili et les Etats-Unis est porté aux nues comme étant le premier accord significatif de l'hémisphère occidental depuis la signature de l'Accord de libre-échange nord-américain (ALENA) une décennie auparavant. Mais tandis qu'il est glorifié dans certains cercles américains, il expose la grande majorité des problèmes qui caractérisent les accords commerciaux passés, des problèmes qui génèrent un fort mécontentement quant à la mondialisation. En effet, d'une certaine manière, il représente un pas en arrière.

Une des sources du mécontentement associé à la mondialisation est qu'elle prive les pays de leur liberté de protéger leur économie et leurs citoyens. Il semble que les intérêts spécifiques des pays industriels passent avant les intérêts mondiaux. De plus, ces accords commerciaux sont souvent asymétriques : le Nord insiste pour que le Sud ouvre des marchés et élimine les primes tandis qu'il conserve les barrières commerciales et subventionne ses propres agriculteurs.

Dans une certaine mesure, l'accord passé avec le Chili aborde un nouveau domaine, mais dans la mauvaise direction. Il n'a pas réussi à profiter des perspectives offertes par des échanges plus ouverts sur un marché émergeant disposant d'un service public sophistiqué et hautement qualifié.

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