Las Tres Facetas de Putin

MOSCÚ: La presidencia de Rusia es con frecuencia caricaturizada comparándola con la posición de un zar, pero los poderes del presidente Vladimir Putin son más limitados que los de los antiguos caciques del Politburó y autócratas del Kremlin. Una obvia señal de esto es el tiempo que Putin invierte en viajes al extranjero que tienen poca justificación diplomática. La diplomacia, sin embargo, le da a un presidente la oportunidad de acentuar su autoridad para futuras batallas domésticas.

Las limitantes que Putin enfrenta no son constitucionales, sino más bien representadas por las tres facciones que conforman su gobierno. La primera de estas facciones es un grupo de hombres de San Petesburgo, miembros de la FSB (la agencia sucesora de la KGB), encabezados por el Secretario del Consejo de Seguridad, Sergei Ivanov. La segunda consiste de economistas y abogados liberales originarios del pueblo natal de Putin, San Petesburgo, entre los cuales las luminarias dirigentes son el Ministro de Finanzas, Alexei Kudrin, y el Ministro de Economía, German Gref. La tercera facción es un grupo "oligárquico" con tendencias empresariales dirigido por el Jefe de Personal de Putin, Alexander Voloshin, el Primer Ministro, Mikhail Kasyanov y el reservado magnate petrolero y de la industria del aluminio, Roman Abramovich, quizá el hombre más rico de Rusia a sus apenas 33 años.

Es por estas tres evidentes fallas que algunos rusos hablan de tres gobiernos distintos para seguridad, economía y política/negocios cuando describen a su país. Naturalmente, la gente de la FSB se enfoca en la seguridad, la ley y el orden, y los liberales de San Petesburgo buscan reformas económicas de mercado. Pero, como sucedió durante la administración de Yeltsin, es la facción oligárquica la que domina, pues controla la Presidencia, el Consejo Ministerial, dos facciones parlamentarias de centro y gran parte de las industrias petrolera, del aluminio, ferrocarrilera y nuclear.

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