Jon Krause

安全陷阱

芝加哥——

尽管世界正变得越来越一体化,但“安全”一词仍然频频占据着人们的眼球,比如“食品安全”、“能源安全”等等。一般来说,这意味着一国要不惜一切代价制造和控制生产设施。因此,阿拉伯国家在沙漠中种植水稻,而中国收购苏丹石油公司的股权。这些行为有经济意义么?如果不能,应该怎样才能抑制这种行为?

让我们从获取国外资源的所有权开始。也许有人认为,如果一国拥有了外国的油田,它就可以用其中的利润来缓和高油价对本国的伤害。但这样做没有什么经济效益。在世界市场上,油价是由机会成本决定的。对国内石油消费进行价格补贴(从而产生促使国内生厂商和消费者滥用石油的激励)远不如让国内石油价格上升到国际价格水平并将外国石油资产所获得的巨额利润分配给全国人民。

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