Sekularita a duchovno v evropské ústavě

Jednou z polemik kolem návrhu ústavy Evropské unie je to, zda by v její preambuli měl být obsažen přímý odkaz na evropské křesťanské dědictví. Nad problematikou se zamýšlí Silvio Ferrari, významný znalec vztahů mezi církvemi a státem.

Evropské kostely mohou sice zet prázdnotou, náboženství však stále probouzí vzrušené debaty, tentokrát o jeho místě v evropské ústavě. Někteří lidé požadují, aby ústava obsahovala přímý odkaz na evropské křesťanské dědictví. Jiní chtějí, aby Evropa potvrdila svou sekulární povahu. Jakou roli by v základním zákoně Evropské unie měl hrát sekulární rozměr a jakou rozměr duchovní?

Není překvapením, že v návrhu ústavy má významné místo svoboda vyznání. Každý občan Evropy má právo vyznávat náboženství dle vlastní volby, přijmout jiné náboženství nebo se k žádnému náboženství nehlásit. Základem tohoto postoje je prvořadé postavení svědomí jedince, které s sebou nese právo každého člověka činit v záležitostech víry vlastní rozhodnutí, aniž by taková rozhodnutí vedla k negativním právním důsledkům. Ať jde o katolického, protestantského či pravoslavného věřícího nebo o ateistu, občanská a politická práva musí být rovná bez ohledu na rozhodnutí ve věcech náboženství či svědomí.

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