Jim Meehan

Rendons toute son efficacité au capitalisme !

BERLIN – Du fait de la crise financière mondiale et du ralentissement économique qu'elle a entraîné, les pays anglosa-xons se demandent ce qu'ils doivent faire pour remettre leur économie sur le chemin de la croissance et éviter la répétition d'un tel scénario. Des membres du Centre de recherche sur le capitalisme et la société de l'université de Columbia ont adressé des recommandations aux participants du sommet du G20 en avril dernier. Pour créer des emplois, j'ai ainsi proposé que les Etats créent des banques spécialisées dans l'art aujourd'hui disparu de financer des projets d'investissement dans le secteur des affaires - le type de financement que les anciennes ampquot;banques marchandesampquot; pratiquaient fort bien il y a un siècle. J'ai aussi redis mon soutien à des subventions aux entreprises qui emploient des salariés peu qualifiés (Singapour a adopté cette idée avec d'excellents résultats).

Pour éviter que les banques commerciales ne courent à nouveau le risque de devenir insolvables (et tout le pays à sa suite), Richard Robb a proposé une petite taxe sur les emprunts à court terme réalisés par les banques, ceci pour les dissuader de trop emprunter. Amar Bhide a proposé que les banques commerciales redeviennent des ampquot;banques étroitesampquot; [banques soumises à une réglementation très contraignante] - dans ce cas le moindre emprunt leur serait interdit.

Pourtant, malgré toutes les mesures prises et les discussions qui ont eu lieu depuis, aucune de ces propositions n'a été adoptée par les pays du G20. Ils ont donné la priorité à des mesures anticycliques visant à limiter le ralentissement, plutôt qu'à des restructurations. Cet objectif n'est pas critiquable en soi, néanmoins les mesures prises pourraient retarder la reprise.

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