羽翼渐丰的非政府组织

当"人权观察"在去年1月宣布不适于对伊拉克战争进行人道主义干预,国际传媒对此非常关注。据因特网数据库Factiva显示,从《堪萨斯城星报》到《贝鲁特每日星报》,有43篇新闻报道提到了这份报告。无独有偶,伊拉克阿布格勒布监狱的虐囚丑闻曝光后,"大赦国际"和"国际红十字会"的观点都在海内外给布什政府施加了压力。

这些事例表明,非政府组织(NGO)在世界舞台上的重要性日渐增加是当今资讯时代的重要标志。这虽然不是什么新闻,但现代通讯确实使NGO的规模急剧扩大,其数量仅在20世纪90年代就从6000个增加到26000个。而仅从数量还不能窥其全貌,因为它们代表的仅仅是正式建立的组织。

许多NGO都声称是"全球良知",一种超越单一国家范畴的广泛的公众利益。它们通过直接向政府或公司施压使其改变政策或间接地改变公众对政府和公司行为的看法而制定新的规范。NGO没有强迫性的"硬"权力,但却往往拥有相当的"软"权力-一种通过吸引而不是强迫来达到目的的能力。因为它们吸引追随者,所以政府或必须与之结盟或与之为敌。

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