Margaret Scott

El retorno de 1948

TEL AVIV – La próxima conferencia de las Naciones Unidas que conmemora el sesenta aniversario de la Agencia de Naciones Unidas para los refugiados de Palestina (UNRWA) no pudo llegar en mejor momento. La restitución de los territorios ocupados en 1967 obviamente seguirá siendo indispensable para resolver el conflicto palestino-israelí, pero es el legado de la guerra de 1948 el que ambas partes en el conflicto han puesto ahora en el centro del debate.

Curiosamente, fue el primer ministro israelí, Binyamin Netanyahu, quien reabrió el archivo de 1948 al solicitar que los palestinos reconocieran a Israel como Estado judío. Esta demanda llevó el tema de la búsqueda de la paz a sus aspectos fundamentales, en los que la cuestión de los refugiados tiene un papel central.

La intención de Netanyahu era esencialmente obligar a los palestinos a admitir que el derecho de retorno de los refugiados se aplica solamente al Estado palestino, no a Israel. Sin embargo, la verdadera importancia de su demanda radica en que se pronunció en un momento en el que las políticas del primer ministro Salam Fayaad plantean un verdadero desafío para el Movimiento Nacional Palestino para elegir entre un espíritu de reivindicación y uno de creación de un Estado.

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