Jaroslav Kaczynski and other Polish politicians Krystian Maj/ZUMAPRESS.com

El problema con la “democracia no liberal”

PRINCETON – El giro de Polonia hacia el autoritarismo hizo sonar alarmas en toda la Unión Europea y dentro de la OTAN. Tras su llegada al poder en octubre, el partido Ley y Justicia de Jarosław Kaczyński atacó al Tribunal Constitucional del país, politizó el sistema judicial y la administración pública, y lanzó un asalto contra el pluralismo informativo.

Los críticos del gobierno de Ley y Justicia, liderado por la primera ministra Beata Szydło (con Kaczyński que gobierna detrás de escena, ya que no ocupa ningún puesto oficial), han descrito sus acciones como una guerra relámpago para instaurar la “democracia no liberal”, como lo que hizo el primer ministro húngaro Viktor Orbán en su país a lo largo de los últimos seis años. Pero llamar democracia no liberal a lo que se está construyendo en Polonia supone una gran confusión, que dificulta los intentos de poner límites a aspirantes a autócratas como Kaczyński y Orbán. No es solo el liberalismo lo que está bajo ataque, sino la democracia misma.

El concepto de “democracia no liberal”, atribuible a un ensayo publicado en 1997 por el analista de política exterior estadounidense Fareed Zakaria, fue un intento de describir regímenes que celebraban elecciones pero no respetaban el Estado de Derecho y anulaban sistemáticamente los controles y contrapesos constitucionales de sus sistemas políticos. Fue una idea nacida de la desilusión. En los días de júbilo que siguieron a la caída del comunismo, prevaleció una especie de éxtasis democrático (al menos en Occidente): se había alcanzado el “fin de la historia”, y parecía que las elecciones, las instituciones representativas y el Estado de Derecho irían siempre de la mano.

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