Die Armut der Diktatur

CAMBRIDGE – Das vielleicht erstaunlichste Ergebnis des jüngsten Human Development Report der Vereinten Nationen, der zum 20. Mal erschienen ist, ist das herausragende Abschneiden der muslimischen Länder im Nahen Osten und in Nordafrika. Zum Beispiel lag Tunesien, was die Verbesserung seines Human Development Index (HDI, Index für menschliche Entwicklung) in den letzten vier Jahrzehnten angeht, von 135amp#160;Ländern auf dem 6.amp#160;Platz, vor Malaysia, Hongkong, Mexiko und Indien. Nicht weit dahinter kam Ägypten auf Platzamp#160;14.

Der HDI ist ein Entwicklungsmaßstab, der neben dem Wirtschaftswachstum die Leistungen im Gesundheits- und Bildungswesen erfasst. Ägypten und (besonders) Tunesien schnitten beim Wachstum recht gut ab, doch so richtig glänzten sie bei diesen allgemeineren Indikatoren. Mit einer Lebenserwartung von 74amp#160;Jahren liegt Tunesien knapp vor Ungarn und Estland, Ländern, die doppelt so reich sind. Etwa 69amp#160;% der ägyptischen Kinder besuchen eine Schule, eine Quote, die mit der des wesentlich reicheren Malaysias vergleichbar ist. Offensichtlich haben es diese Staaten nicht versäumt, für Sozialleistungen zu sorgen oder die Gewinne des Wirtschaftswachstums breit zu verteilen.

Doch am Ende kam es nicht darauf an. Tunesier und Ägypter waren, um Howard Beale frei wiederzugeben, stinksauer auf ihre Regierungen und wollten dies nicht mehr länger hinnehmen. Falls Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali in Tunesien oder Husni Mubarak in Ägypten als Belohnung für wirtschaftliche Gewinne auf politische Popularität gehofft hatten, müssen sie bitter enttäuscht gewesen sein.

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