La Politique des valeurs

Le débat sur les élections américaines n’a toujours pas faibli. Comment le président George W. Bush a-t-il pu obtenir trois millions de votes de plus que le sénateur John Kerry, et, de plus, s’offrir une majorité républicaine aux deux chambres du Congrès ? On s’accorde peu sur les réponses, mais deux thèmes sont récurrents dans de nombreuses explications.

L’un de ces thèmes tient à sa personnalité. A notre époque pleine d’incertitudes et de menace, les citoyens ont placé leur confiance dans un président qu’ils connaissaient plutôt que dans un candidat n’ayant pas encore fait ses preuves. Le second est celui des valeurs. Les citoyens ont voté pour un ensemble de valeurs plutôt que pour des politiques spécifiques. En effet, certains (dit-on) s’accordent avec les politiques de M. Kerry mais ont pourtant apporté leur voix à M. Bush parce qu’ils se sentaient « à l’aise » avec l’ensemble de son attitude.

Il est clair que les États-Unis sont maintenant profondément divisés en termes électoraux. Une arche d’États bleus (démocrates) à l’Est, au Nord et à l’Ouest s’étend autour d’une énorme zone rouge (républicaine) au centre et au Sud. Au-delà de la division géographique, les divisions se reproduisent au niveau local. Le charcutage électoral, cette pratique de retraçage des frontières électorales pour favoriser un parti politique au détriment d’un autre, n’est plus nécessaire. Les électeurs tendent à emménager dans des régions où la majorité des habitants partagent leurs valeurs, qu’elles soient républicaines ou démocrates.

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