Os Testes de Esforço da Política Europeia

PRINCETON - Nos últimos anos, a União Europeia - ou, mais precisamente, os países poderosos da Europa do Norte - têm submetido os seus membros mais fracos a "testes de esforço" a nível social e político, em nome da disciplina orçamental. Como resultado, o Sul da Europa e algumas partes da Europa de Leste tornaram-se uma espécie de laboratório político, onde as experiências produzem uma surpreendentemente - e cada vez mais imprevisível - diversidade de resultados em diferentes países. Na última cimeira da UE, o Primeiro-Ministro do Luxemburgo, Jean-Claude Juncker, sugeriu mesmo que o risco de uma "revolução social" não deveria ser excluído.

Embora seja pouco provável um desfecho deste género, é cada vez mais evidente que muitos países europeus - e que a UE como um todo – precisam de renegociar os seus contratos sociais básicos. Mas as elites europeias, preocupadas com soluções de curto prazo, não consideraram a necessidade, a longo prazo, de tais revisões - em seu próprio prejuízo.

De facto, apesar de existirem variações significativas em cada país, há uma tendência que se está a tornar cada vez mais evidente em toda a UE: os eleitores, independentemente da sua orientação política, estão a rejeitar, na primeira oportunidade, os líderes que implementam planos de austeridade. Mas, além desta extraordinária oposição à austeridade, as experiências dos países são bastante diversas.

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