Los santuarios terroristas de las Filipinas

La presencia de santuarios insurgentes o terroristas en países no beligerantes es uno de los problemas más difíciles y explosivos en las relaciones internacionales. Fue un hecho central en la Guerra de Vietnam, produjo casi la destrucción del Líbano y sigue asolando a la coalición en Irak. También es clave en la actual guerra al terrorismo en el sudeste asiático.

Vietnam difería de Corea y Malasia, donde prevalecieron la contención y la contrainsurgencia, porque los comunistas podían rebasar a las fuerzas aliadas en Vietnam del Sur utilizando el territorio “neutral” de Camboya y Laos. Como con la presencia de la OLP en el Líbano hasta 1982, esta estrategia sumió a los desventurados países huéspedes en la guerra civil y provocó invasiones por parte de potencias más fuertes, lo que a su vez impulsó más movimientos extremistas: el Khmer Rouge, Hezbollá y la Jihad Islámica.

Como los países huéspedes anteriores, las Filipinas es un estado débil, en paz con sus vecinos y Occidente. Sin embargo, desde 1994, sus ingobernables islas del sur han reemplazado a Afganistán como el principal lugar de entrenamiento y refugio de los fanáticos de la jihad del sudeste asiático. La mayoría son indonesios que pertenecen a Jemaah Islamiyah (JI), Mujahidin Kompak, y otras facciones del Darul Islam.

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