Die Vergangenheit ist nie vergangen

PARIS – Das Verhältnis eines Landes zu seiner Vergangenheit ist entscheidend für seine Gegenwart und Zukunft, für seine Fähigkeit, „vorwärts“ zu kommen oder aus vergangenen Fehlern zu lernen und sie nicht zu wiederholen. Laut William Faulkner gibt es eine Vergangenheit, die „nicht tot und begraben ist. In Wirklichkeit ist sie nicht einmal vergangen“. Diese Art der Vergangenheit blockiert jegliche Entwicklung in Richtung einer notwendigen Aussöhnung mit sich selbst und einem früheren oder aktuellen Feind.    

Qualvoll sichtbar ist eine derartige Vergangenheit heute beispielsweise auf dem Balkan. Aufgrund der schmerzlichen Fixierung auf die Konflikte, die das Gebiet in den 1990er Jahren auseinander rissen, ist die Region heute größtenteils gelähmt. Über allem liegt noch immer die absolute Unfähigkeit, den Standpunkt des anderen zu bedenken und das Gefühl des kollektiven Martyriums zu überwinden.

Der Balkan braucht heute keine Historiker oder Politikwissenschaftler, sondern Psychoanalytiker, die den Menschen helfen können, ihre Vergangenheit um der Gegenwart und Zukunft willen zu bewältigen. Es ist zu hoffen, dass der in Aussicht gestellte Beitritt zur Europäischen Union die beste „psychoanalytische Kur“ sein wird.

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