下一位美国领袖

坎布里奇——美国总统选举吸引了来自全世界的注意力。最后三位候选人中有一位妇女、一位非洲裔美国人和一位经常挑战自己政党的老者表明了美国在经历过布什时代的威望受损之后,仍然具备重塑威望的能力。但下一任总统还必须意识到:领导权力的性质也正在发生着变化。

信息革命正在悄然改变着机构和政治。等级制度趋于扁平化,受过教育的劳工在不同的诱惑和政治吸引中做出选择。民意调查显示,今天的人们对机构和政治权威的恭顺度已经大打折扣。而软性实力——也就是通过诱惑而不是胁迫或者贿赂来达到目的的能力——正在变得越来越重要。

即便是军队也面对着变化的课题。据五角大楼报告,美军教官已经“不再像过去那样大喊大叫”,因为“娓娓道来的建议” 能够在今天的军人中收到更好的效果。对恐怖和叛乱份子的军事胜利需要士兵们去赢得人心,而不只是摧毁肉体。领导理论学家提出了“分享式领导”和“赋权式领导”的理念,认为好的领导应该处在圆圈的核心,而不是等级阶梯的最顶端。

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