La nueva cara del fascismo

Aparentemente, los partidos post-fascistas y de extrema derecha, cuya creciente popularidad provocó alarma en toda Europa occidental hace algunos años, están desapareciendo de la escena electoral. Pero, ¿significa eso que el radicalismo político, los sentimientos de extrema derecha y el fascismo se están extinguiendo en Europa? Difícilmente. Al tiempo que tanto los grupos post-fascistas y de extrema derecha se debilitan en Europa occidental, los partidos de ese signo han resurgido ominosamente en Europa oriental, sobre todo con el éxito de los nacionalistas radicales en las recientes elecciones de Rusia y Serbia.

Al mismo tiempo, los costos del debilitamiento de los partidos de extrema derecha, nacionalistas y post-fascistas en Europa occidental y central han sido altos: las fuerzas políticas convencionales se vieron obligadas a adoptar parte del vocabulario y la agenda de la extrema derecha. Muchos políticos y partidos convencionales europeos ahora defienden políticas en contra de la inmigración, expresan un mayor escepticismo hacia la integración europea o manejan una forma de antisemitismo que disfrazan como crítica a las políticas de Israel.

Los partidos extremistas también se han visto marginados debido a su débil postura en la política paneuropea. Los electores en Italia, Francia, Holanda y Austria (aquellos países en los que los partidos post-fascistas o de extrema derecha generaron las mayores preocupaciones) se dieron cuenta gradualmente de que las fuerzas democráticas convencionales de Europa sólo le darían a los partidos extremistas una influencia limitada en el Parlamento Europeo y otras instituciones de la UE. Algunos (por ejemplo, los Demócratas Libres de Jörg Haider en Austria o los post-fascistas italianos de Gianfranco Fini) tuvieron que moderar su radicalismo cuando pasaron a formar parte de coaliciones de gobierno.

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