Chris Van Es

El euro desnudo

LONDRES – Grandes retos y respuestas mediocres: esa es la historia de la Unión Europea. Muy raramente la UE se pone a la altura de los acontecimientos, y ese es el motivo de que Europa se esté desvaneciendo en lo económico y geopolítico.

El Tratado de Roma de 1958, que creó la Comunidad Económica Europea, fue el gran salto hacia adelante de Europa. Sin embargo, la decisión de crear un mercado común sin un gobierno común significó sencillamente postergar los problemas para el futuro. Todo lo hecho desde entonces -la ampliación a 27 estados miembros y la creación de la eurozona de 16 miembros- ha ampliado la brecha entre retórica y realidad. La euroárea no ha hecho más que prometer mucho más que lo que su historia le permite cumplir.

La crisis financiera griega es el ejemplo más reciente de la brecha entre retórica y realidad. En su raíz, es una crisis de ampquot;ampliaciónampquot;, en este caso la ampliación de la eurozona. Los esfuerzos sin precedentes de disciplina fiscal en los años 90 -ayudados en Grecia por la ampquot;contabilidad creativaampquot;- permitieron a Portugal, Italia, Grecia y España (a los que se alude con el ofensivo acrónimo de ampquot;PIGSampquot;) cumplir los criterios de entrada en 1992. Sin embargo, una vez adentro la presión ya no estaba. La mayoría de los países mediterráneos siguieron gastando alegremente, confiados de que los mercados no les harían rendir cuentas.

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