Jaro demokracie na Blízkém východě

Volební výsledky na celém Blízkém východě zaznamenávají nový trend: islamistické politické strany – ty, které svůj program zakládají na islámském právu – se těší značné oblibě. Kde se konají volby, tam si islamisté vedou dobře: Hamas mezi Palestinci na západním břehu Jordánu a v Gaze, nábožensky orientovaná šíitská koalice v Iráku, parlamentní frakce v Maroku a – co je nejvýznamnější – vládnoucí Strana spravedlnosti a rozvoje (AKP) v Turecku.

Demokratická hnutí v Libanonu, Egyptě i jinde v oblasti se musí potýkat s otázkou, jak začlenit islamistické strany do demokratických systémů. Lze však islamistům věřit? Budou respektovat práva menšin a žen, dostanou-li se k moci, a uvolní po volební porážce funkce? Budou tolerovat disent? Anebo budou takové volby založeny na principu „jeden člověk, jeden hlas, jedenkrát“?

Jako sociolog se těmito otázkami zabývám 30 let. Jako vězeň v egyptském žaláři jsem o nich diskutoval se spoluvězni, z nichž mnozí se za mřížemi ocitli coby stoupenci egyptského islamistického hnutí. Můj závěr? Islamistické strany se mění.

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