应对不平等问题,世界亟需新模式

纽约——今年,社会、政治动荡和不稳定的浪潮席卷全球,群众纷纷走上真实或虚拟的街头:阿拉伯之春、伦敦骚乱、以色列中产阶级的反通胀示威、智利大学生游行、德国“肥佬”豪车被毁风潮、印度反腐风暴、腐败与不平等让中国“不高兴”,如今,“占领华尔街”运动在纽约和全美如火如荼。

虽然这些抗议行动并无统一纲领,但它们以不同的方式表达出全世界劳动和中产阶级的深切忧虑——眼看权力日益向经济、金融和政治精英集中,他们感到前途茫茫。直接导火索很明确:发达和新兴经济体失业率高,就业不充分;年轻人的教育和技能不足以应对全球化世界的挑战;非法或披着合法外衣的腐败(如政治游说)激起反弹;收入和财富不平等大幅加剧。

当然,有无力感的人如此众多,不能归结为单一因素。例如,不平等的加剧有多重原因:中国和印度的23亿人加入全球劳动大军,压缩了发达经济体低技能蓝领岗位和可外包白领岗位的数量和薪酬;技术革新包涵着技能歧视;赢家通吃效应;原先的低收入国家,其经济虽在迅速成长,收入和贫富差距却也早早出现;税收的累进性有所衰减等等。

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