Le goulag de l'esprit russe

Il y a exactement 15 ans, en août 1991, un coup d'Etat contre Gorbatchev échouait. A cette époque, les durs du Parti considéraient la perestroika et la glasnost comme une réédition de la Russie communiste face au capitalisme occidental. Mais il est maintenant clair que les éléments du KGB et de l'armée à l'origine du coup ne défendaient pas le communisme ; ils défendaient en réalité leur conception de la mission impériale de la Russie, une notion qui a permis aux commissaires du Kremlin d'assurer encore davantage leur mainmise sur le vaste empire russe et sur ses voisins, au-delà de ce qu'aucun tsar n'aurait jamais imaginé.

Les réformes entreprises par Gorbatchev ont non seulement libéré les Russes de la camisole de force du marxisme-léninisme, mais elles ont libéré les aspirations nationales d'un peuple prisonnier de l'empire depuis des siècles. Voyant les peuples d'Europe centrale se libérer de la domination soviétique à peine deux ans auparavant, les nations de l'URSS ont voulu la même liberté pour elles-mêmes.

Les républiques baltes (L'Estonie, la Lettonie et la Lituanie) ont été les premières à suivre leur propre route et elles ont lié leur destin à celui de l'Europe en devenant membres de l'Union européenne et de l'OTAN. D'autres ont rapidement suivi. En décembre 1991, l'empire soviétique n'existait plus.

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