La pseudo-révolution verte

COPENHAGEN – Les pressions de la récession mondiale mettent en danger l’ardeur des mesures sur le réchauffement climatique. Ce n’est pas un détail, car dans un peu plus d’un an, se tiendront à Copenhague les discussions internationales pour parvenir à l’accord qui remplacera le décevant Protocole de Kyoto. Les gens perdant travail et revenus, le soutien immédiat à l’économie semble compter davantage que d’éventuels écarts de température dans 100 ans.

Nombre d’experts environnementaux ont pourtant commencé à dire que la crise financière rend d’autant plus sensible le besoin de mesures pour lutter contre le réchauffement climatique. Ils pressent le futur président d’Amérique, Barack Obama, de déclencher une “révolution verte” en investissant massivement dans les énergies renouvelables. Ils mettent en avant la création de millions d’emplois de “cols verts” et l’ouverture de nouveaux marchés importants qu’elle représenterait. On n’est pas surpris de voir ces convictions relayées par les dirigeants d’entreprises qui vivent de ces subventions. Mais ces requêtes profitent-elles intelligemment à la société?

Le hic dans le choix de la révolution verte, c’est qu’on ne s’encombre pas de préoccupations d’efficacité. Le plus souvent, cette révolution est portée aux nues pour les nouveaux emplois qu’elle serait susceptible de générer. Mais des milliards de dollars en subventions d’origine fiscale créeraient quantité de nouveaux emplois, pratiquement dans tous les secteurs: l’idée est qu’avec l’apport de l’argent des contribuables, un plus petit nombre de secteurs à haute intensité de capital générerait un plus grand nombre d’emplois.

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