Le court-circuit de la voiture électrique

PRAGUE – Il y a plus d’un siècle, l’idée de la voiture électrique a suscité pendant des décennies l’imagination d’inventeurs aussi célèbres que Henry Ford et Thomas Edison. Célébrités, sommités et dirigeants politiques ont tous campé ces véhicules comme l’apothéose d’un avenir écologiquement responsable. La chancelière de l’Allemagne Angela Merkel a déclaré qu’un million de voitures électriques rouleront sur l’Autobahn d’ici 2020. Le président Barack Obama a lui-même fait la promesse d’un million de véhicules électriques qui rouleront cinq ans plus tôt sur les routes américaines.

Il est certain qu’un jour, la voiture électrique sera un produit formidable – mais pas tout de suite. Son fonctionnement est trop coûteux et peu pratique. Ses avantages pour l’environnement sont négligeables (et dans certains cas, inexistants).

Nombre de pays offrent des subventions plus que généreuses à l’achat de voitures électriques qui s’élèvent jusqu’à 7 500 $ aux États-Unis, 8 500 $ au Canada, 9 000 € (11 700 $) en Belgique et 6,000 € dans une Espagne pourtant à court d’argent. Le Danemark offre la subvention la plus généreuse de toutes, par l’exemption d’un taux progressif de taxe d’enregistrement sur des véhicules électriques que le pays impose à hauteur de 180 % sur tous les autres véhicules. Pour la voiture électrique la plus populaire au monde, la Leaf de Nissan, cette exonération vaut 63 000 €.

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