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任何经济都不是独立于法律、道德和政治规则之外的与外界无关的封闭领域。实际上,最能引起人们兴趣的问题往往出现在经济学与其他学科的临界点。 但上述规律在经济过程和自然环境的相互作用中表现得最为明显。

这种相互作用最显著的特征是其不服从力学定律,而服从热学定律,尤其是能量扩散定律,根据这条定律,能够转化为机械做功的自由能量随着时间的流逝而不断减少¾这是一个不可逆转的过程,而“热寂”是这一过程终结时不可避免的归宿。在已故经济学家尼古拉斯·乔治斯库·洛根(Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen)对经济过程和自然环境关系探索性研究的启发下,特别是在20世纪70年代,几位研究人员曾尝试制定适用于经济和社会的“能量扩散”理论,但他们的努力似乎并没有取得多大成功。


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