Unternehmen Universität

von Henry Etzkowitz By Henry Etzkowitz

Über lange Zeit spielten Universitäten eine zentrale Rolle in der wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung indem sie Fähigkeiten, Ausbildung und Gedankengut vermittelten, sowie Grundlagenforschung betrieben, die jedes Land benötigt um Fortschritt und Wachstum zu sichern. Inwieweit soll sich jedoch eine akademische Institution an gewinnträchtigen Aktivitäten beteiligen? Riskieren die Universitäten ihre traditionelle Unabhängigkeit und Verpflichtung zu offenem intellektuellen Austausch, wenn sie ihre eigenen Firmen gründen oder die ihrer Angestellten mitfinanzieren?

In immer mehr Ländern wurde die akademische Forschung während der letzten zwei Jahrzehnte zu einem gewinnorientierten Vorhaben. Nach Informationen des Verbandes der amerikanischen Technologiemanager an Hochschulen wurden im Jahr 2000 mindestens 300 Firmen gegründet, deren Geschäftsgrundlage Erfindungen waren, die von amerikanischen Universitäten stammen. Was im Jahr 1980, als der Kongress ein Gesetz verabschiedete, das den Universitäten die Verwertung geistigen Eigentums aus öffentlich finanzierter Forschung zuerkannte, als typisch amerikanisches Modell begann, ist nun auch von so unterschiedlichen Ländern wie Großbritannien, Schweden und Sambia übernommen worden.

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