Paul Lachine

Wiedersehen mit dem ostasiatischen Wunder

HONGKONG – Vor beinahe zwanzig Jahren hat die Weltbank ihre bahnbrechende Studie The East Asian Miracleveröffentlicht, in der analysiert wurde, warum ostasiatische Volkswirtschaften schneller wuchsen als Schwellenmärkte in Lateinamerika, Afrika und anderswo. Der Bericht gelangte zu dem Schluss, dass diese Volkswirtschaften hohe Wachstumsraten erzielten, indem sie die richtigen Grundlagen schufen, Investitionen und Humankapital förderten und sich der Produktion für den Export öffneten.

Das war allerdings noch nicht alles. Die Weltbank hat ebenfalls zugegeben, wenn auch widerwillig, dass – systematisch und über verschiedene Kanäle – staatliche Interventionen zur Förderung der Entwicklung erfolgt sind, unter anderem in bestimmten Wirtschaftszweigen an bestimmten Standorten durch Subventionen, Steuervergünstigungen und finanzielle Unterdrückung.

Im Lauf der Jahre, insbesondere nach der Asienkrise, sind die marktfreundlichen, den Rückzug des Staates propagierenden wirtschaftspolitischen Maßnahmen des Washington Consensus in Ungnade gefallen. Eine „Neue Institutionenökonomik“ (NIÖ) hat an Boden gewonnen, indem sie die von etablierten Modellen hinterlassenen Lücken füllte, die die zentrale Bedeutung von Institutionen, im Sinne formaler und informeller Regeln, bei der Gestaltung des Wandels und der Bewältigung der Unsicherheit vernachlässigten, die die Ressourcenallokation und gesellschaftliche Entscheidungen beeinflussen. Angesichts der heutigen großen Rezession und der aktuellen Schuldenkrise in Europa bleibt die zentrale Frage tatsächlich die der Rolle des Staates bei der Förderung von Wachstum und Entwicklung.

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