Une Ecosse nouvelle se lève

Trois cent ans après que le premier Parlement écossais ait voté en 1707 sa propre abolition, le Parti national écossais (SNP) a gagné plusieurs sièges supplémentaires au Parlement écossais dans le cadre de la dévolution [semi-autonomie accordée en 1999], l'une des grandes réformes de Tony Blair. Un gouvernement mené par le SNP est-il annonciateur d'une scission au sein du Royaume-Uni ? Plus largement, le nationalisme, produit de la politique du 19° siècle, a-t-il encore un rôle à jouer en Europe ?

La réponse à la première question est presque certainement Non. Les nationalistes n'ont réuni que 31,9% des voix, contre 59,6% pour les partis favorables à l'union. Ce qui montre que la représentation proportionnelle peut donner d'étranges résultats.

En 1957, l'idée de ampquot;bâtir les fondations d'une Union sans cesse plus étroite des peuples d'Europeampquot; est née de la volonté de rejeter dans le passé la guerre entre les nations européennes et de leur fournir un gage de stabilité intérieure. Pendant 50 ans, les deux grandes entités qui se faisaient face dans le cadre de la Guerre froide sont parvenues à étouffer les tendances nationalistes en leur sein. Avec la fin de la Guerre froide, le nationalisme - que se soit sous la forme de la création d'un Etat à la manière de Bismarck ou d'une rupture pour des motifs ethniques - a resurgit.

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