核能身上的污点

发自新加坡——日本的核危机是一场噩梦,但它并非孤例。事实上这只是一连串核反应堆熔毁、爆炸,火灾和冷却液泄露事故的其中之一——而且这些事故在正常运作和紧急状况下(比如干旱和地震)都可能发生。

为此我们首先要明确与核安全有关的一些概念。美国核管理委员会(Nuclear Regulatory Commission)将意外发生的核“事件”分为两个级别:“事件”以及“事故”。其中事件指的是在核电站日常运行中出现的意外情况或者技术问题,但不会造成辐射外泄或者设备严重损坏;而事故则是核辐射泄漏或是核电站设备严重损坏。

而国际核与辐射事件等级标准(International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale)则将核与辐射事件按其严重性分为7级:1~3级为“事件”,4~7级为“事故”,其中第7级“重大事故”定义为“辐射物质严重泄漏并造成广泛的人体健康和环境影响,需要实施有计划以及持续的应对措施”。

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