El imperativo del trabajo decoroso

NUEVA YORK – A lo largo del pasado decenio, las filas de los desempleados han aumentado hasta los 190 millones a escala mundial. Ese número refleja sólo una fracción del problema, ya que el 80 por ciento de la mano de obra mundial se encuentra en el sector no estructurado, sin prestaciones de desempleo ni otra clase de protección social. Se calcula que al menos el 43,5 por ciento de los trabajadores –1.300 millones de personas– no gana lo suficiente para superar, junto con su familia, el umbral de la pobreza, que asciende a dos dólares al día. Se espera que los recientes nuevos cálculos del Banco Mundial sobre la pobreza aumenten aún más ese número.

Evidentemente, el crecimiento de la economía mundial en los últimos decenios –incluido el último medio decenio, en el que muchos países en desarrollo tuvieron muy buenos resultados– no ha propiciado la creación de suficientes puestos de trabajo válidos, como tampoco las políticas económicas y sociales actuales han compensado lo suficiente ese déficit.

Aparte del número en aumento de desempleados y subempleados, las condiciones para muchos de los empleados han ido deteriorándose también en muchos países, en particular las de los trabajadores con poca instrucción y pocas aptitudes. A escala mundial, el empleo eventual, la contratación externa, la contratación y subcontratación laborales están volviéndose la norma, lo que debilita los derechos de los trabajadores y crea más inseguridad laboral.

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